Impact of Agricultural Research in Nigeria Vol.1

Conducting agricultural research impact study amounts to an attempt to measure the effects of research outputs on
research objects or end-users. Several reasons can be given to support the need for the conduct of agricultural technology impact studies by or for an organization. One, agricultural research/adoption impact study provides information for policy makers and agricultural research funding agencies.

Two, the transfer of research-induced technology to farmers is the only way to measure research benefits to society. Thus, studies must measure technology adoption rate with diligent accuracy.

Three, agricultural research impact study provides feedback to scientists on which technologies or technology components are successful at farm levels, and what adjustments to the technologies are required at the research end.

Questionnaire was administered to 50 adopters and 50 non- adopters of the selected technology. In this regard, and because of the uncertainty of the diffusion of each technology among the end users, it was agreed to purposively produce separate lists (sample frames) of all adopters and non-adopters, from which samples of 50 respondents each were randomly obtained.

The study conducted economic and social impact assessment of some of the technologies generated and diffused by the NARIs over the 1997-2008 period. The economic impact assessment was undertaken using the Economic surplus method.

For the social impact component, other levels of analysis (the frequency classifications of the adoption profiles, assessments of

Impact Of Agricultural Research In Nigeria Vol. 1 1

the ease of adoption of the various technologies, the assessment of the risks associated with technology adoption, beneficiary assessments and the logit analysis of technology adoption decisions), which sought to understand adoption behaviour and beneficiary assessments of the respondents, were undertaken.

The results presented were derived from the Akino-Hayami model. This model allows the decomposition of the total (social) gains from innovation between consumers and producers.

The analysis for the relevant technologies was undertaken under scenarios of inelastic and elastic demand for each commodity.

All analysis was premised on a typical inelastic commodity supply value. The scenarios of elastic demand for food crops were analyzed merely for comparisons with the more likely scenarios of inelastic food demand.

All results presented cover the period 1997 to 2008, except that the technologies deferred in terms of their years of release for adoption. In all situations, the total gains to society from each technology are the sum of the gains to the consumers and producers.


The  roles  of  the  Nigerian  agricultural  sector  include

provision of food for the growing population, foreign exchange earnings, employing part of the labour force and providing income for the farming households. Agriculture employs nearly three-quarter of Nigeria’s work force (World Bank, 1998). Thus, Agriculture is the principal source of food and livelihood in Nigeria. This implies that agricultural production must be seen as the critical component of every program that seeks to reduce poverty and attain food security in Nigeria. This is also the reason why there must be interest in agricultural productivity trends in Nigeria since income growth comes from productivity growth and savings; the latter enables more investment, hence higher output (Phillip et al, 2008).


The sustainable livelihoods framework provides a common conceptual approach to examining the ways in which agricultural research and technologies fit (or sometimes do not fit) into the livelihood strategies of households or individuals with different types of assets and other resources, strategies that often involve multiple activities undertaken at different times of the year. Applying this framework requires interdisciplinary research and a combination of quantitative and qualitative methods (Adato and Meinzen-Dick, 2002).


Following the impact assessment training workshop at the Ahmadu Bello University Zaria (February 22-27, 2009), a meeting of ARCN, NARIs and the facilitators was held to agree on the technologies to be involved in the social and economic impact assessments. Table 2 shows the agreements at the meeting:


According to NCRI, FARO 51 rice variety has the following basic features: golden colour of grain, high grain yield, early maturity and high ability to suppress weeds. The basic objectives for releasing the variety according to NCRI were; its low input requirement which makes it a technology small scale farmers, it provides high income for farmers and it was environmentally friendly. The variety was meant for both male and female rice farmers and also for all categories of rice producers and processors. The variety was disseminated in Kaduna and Ekiti States and officially released in 2001. Presently, the rice variety is cultivated in the Northwest and Southwest agro-ecological zones in Nigeria.


For all scenarios of price elasticities of demand for the commodities involved in the EIA, the economy and consumers gained from the development and adoption of new varieties of crops. However, producers lost substantially when demand was price inelastic, consistent with theory and results from elsewhere. The gain to producers generally improved, often at the expense of consumers, as demand became price elastic.

Research & Development
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