Agricultural Technologies Generated by the National Agricultural Research Institutes Between 1997 and 2008

Improved agricultural technologies refer to improved planting materials, livestock breeds, agronomic packages and practices, production processes, methods and techniques. These different types of modern improved technologies vary in the degree of their suitability and relevance in a given situation. Some are more appropriate than others. Any technology judged by farmer to be appropriate will help to increase efficiency and reduce production risks. These technologies may have different impact on the demand for and return to the individuals.
Appropriateness of a technology depends, not just on technical feasibility, but also on the conviction by the users that it is also economically feasible and socially compactable with the existing practices and values.
Adequate information on the available technologies within the National Agricultural Research Institutes is not readily available. The Federal Government of Nigeria has over the years committed a lot of resources to the research system whose mandate it is to generate improved technologies for Nigerian agriculture. Research activities undertaken by the NARIs have generated many research outputs. However, such outputs have achieved quite below expectation as there are still low levels of adoption and poor commercialization of research efforts. When technologies are developed, the mechanisms of diffusion and adoption are often ineffective or non-existent. In many cases, the expected users are not aware of the existence of these new technologies. In other cases, less than 10% of technologies available are adopted, due to the fact that these technologies may not meet their needs or due to high cost or difficulties in having access to them. Another cause for the low adoption rate could be attributed to the formulation of these technologies, which may not be well adapted to their circumstances. Some of these technologies are supply-driven, and that led to the need to ascertain the relevance and appropriateness of technologies generated by NARIs. The Agricultural Research Council of Nigeria (ARCN) in 2008 commissioned independent compilation and assessment of available technologies within NARIs. ARCN requires the information to authenticate the availability of the technologies, their relevance, and their appropriateness and to provide feedback to Government and the research institutes. We are very grateful to Prof. E. Nwagbo, Prof. J. Olukosi, Prof. E. Oyedipe, Prof. Ade. Olomola and Prof. G. B. Ayoola who assisted in the compilation and assessment of the technologies. We hope that the information contained in this publication will be useful to the public.

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Agriculture continues to remain a major driver of economic growth in Nigeria. It employs about two-thirds of Nigeria’s total labour force, contributed 42.2% of Gross Domestic Products (GDP) in 2007 and provides 88% of non-oil earnings. The agricultural GDP is contributed by crops (85%), Livestock (10%), Fisheries (4%) and Forestry (1%). Nonetheless, the potential of the sector is far from being fully developed. The global recession, ravaging food crisis, volatility of the oil market and rising unemployment, pose tremendous challenges for the country to diversify the economy in general and the agricultural sector in particular. Key among the constraints to the performance of the agricultural sector are low level of agricultural investment, huge post harvest losses, lack of infrastructure, rudimentary technology, limited irrigation, weak advisory services, poor access to markets, lack of finance and poorly developed agricultural research system. The agricultural research system in Nigeria has not been able to meet the expectations of the small farm sector in terms of increased productivity and of the government in terms of output growth targets. Weak research and extension services, the low level of use of modern inputs, low levels of mechanization and irrigation, poor access to production credit, and fragile natural and human resource bases, all contribute to the low productivity of Nigerian agriculture and constrain  agricultural growth. Agricultural productivity remains abysmally low in spite of decades of research and extension services.

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Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN) has statutory responsibility for research on tree crops – mainly Cocoa, Kolanut, Coffee, Cashew and Tea. The assessment was focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.

In authenticating the existence of technologies generated, the Executive Director of the Institute, Directors of Departments and Research Officers were interviewed and they provided the required data which were confirmed by taking photographs as appropriate and making necessary clarifications. Available data indicate that 17 outputs were generated by the Institute during the period under review.

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The Institute of Agricultural Research and Training has statutory mandate for research into genetic improvement of kenaf, jute and soil and water management and research into the total farming systems for the South-West Ecological zone, comprising of Oyo, Ondo, Ekiti, Lagos, Ogun, Osun, Edo and Delta States. The assessment was focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.

In authenticating the existence of technologies generated, the Executive Director of the institute, Directors of Departments and Research Officers were interviewed and they provided the required data which were confirmed by taking photographs as appropriate and making necessary clarifications. Available data indicate that 11 technologies were generated by the institute during the period under review.

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National Horticultural Research Institute has statutory responsibility for research into genetic improvement and production of fruits, vegetables and flowers as well as ornamental plants nationwide. The assessment is focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.

In authenticating the existence of technologies generated, the Executive Director of the Institute, Directors of Departments and Research Officers were interviewed and they provided the required data which were confirmed by taking photographs as appropriate and making necessary clarifications. During the period under review (1997-2008), 12 11 different types of technologies were generated by the Institute.

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Nigerian Institute of Oceanography and Marine Research ha s statutory
mandate for research into the resource and physical research into genetic
improvement and development of pastures and rangelands characteristics of the Nigerian territorial waters and the high sea beyond and research into the genetic improvement of marine and brackish water fish species and aquatic resources, their production and processing. The assessment is focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.

During the period under review (1997-2008), 6 different types of technologies were generated by the Institute.

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Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria has statutory responsibility for research into the genetic improvement, production and processing of para-rubber, gum Arabic and other latex producing plants. The assessment is focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.

The technologies generated and disseminated by RRIN fall into three categories. A set relate to improved planting materials. Another set relate to cultural practices of rubber production. The third set relate to production of rubber based products and mechanical appliances for rubber production and processing. The institute research into two commodity group: natural rubber and gum producing crop.

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National Institute for Oil Palm Research has statutory responsibility for research into the genetic improvement, production and processing of palm oil, raphia, date, and ornamental palms, coconut and shea tree. The assessment is focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.
The mandate of the NIFOR is to conduct research into the production and products of oil palm and other palms of economic importance and to transfer its research findings to farmers. The emphases of the research mandate are as follows:
 Fundamental study of the mandate crops;
 The improvement of genetic potentials of the specified crops and production of their seeds for distribution to farmers;
 Improvement of agronomic and husbandry practices including planting, cultivation, harvesting and soil fertility management techniques, farming systems in relation to cultivation methods;
 The ecology of pests and diseases of the mandate crops and development of their control measures;
 The mechanization and improvement if the methods of cultivation, harvesting, processing, preservation and storage of palm products;
 The improvement of the utilization of by-products;
 Design and fabrication of simple implements and equipment for palm processing;
 Integration of the cultivation methods of the mandate crops into farming systems in different ecological zones and its socio-economic effects on the rural population; and any other matter relating to production ,processing, and utilization of palm products.

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Nation Root Crops Research Institute has statutory responsibility for research into the genetic improvement of cassava, yams, coco-yams, Irish potato, ginger and sweet potato and research into the total farming systems for the south-east agro-ecological zone covered by Anambra, Enugu, Cross River, Imo, Abia, Rivers, Ebonyi, Akwa Ibom and Bayelsa States. The assessment is focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.
The National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) has the national mandate to conduct research into the genetic improvement, production, processing, storage, utilization and marketing of root and tuber crops of economic importance including: Yam, Cassava, Potato, Sweet potato, Cocoyam, and Ginger.

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Lake Chad Research Institute has statutory responsibility for research into genetic improvement of millet, wheat, barley and massakwa sorghum; and research on total farming systems for the North East agro-ecological zone covered by Borno, Jigawa, Yobe, Gombe, Bauchi and Adamawa States. The assessment is focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.

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National Veterinary Research Institute has statutory responsibility for research into all aspects of animal diseases, their treatment and control and development and production of animal vaccines and sera. The assessment is focused on the type of technologies generated in respect of these crops, their relevance, appropriateness as well as procedures for dissemination and commercialization between 1997 and 2008.

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The mandate of NSPRI stipulates that it shall carry out research into bulk storage problem of export commodities and local food crops. In particular NSPRI shall conduct research into:

a.Improvement and maintenance of the quality of bulk commodity crops including cocoa, groundnuts, and palm produce (kernel and oil).
b. Improvement and maintenance of the quality of local food crops including cereals, grains, pulses, tubers and any other local commodity under bulk storage.
c. Special studies such as stored products pests, pesticide formulations and residue and mycotoxin surveys.
d. Provision of advice and training of extension workers in problems associated with stored products and materials in storage structures, new insecticides, new items of equipment and techniques and,
e. Any other released matters as may be determined from time to time by the institute.

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The National Cereals Research Institute has the mandate to conduct research into the genetic improvement and production of the major stable grains and related crops, particularly rice, maize, cowpea and sugarcane. The re-organization of the agricultural research system in 1987 extended the list of mandate crops to cover soybean and beninseed, acha, castor oil and sugarcane, for which the institute undertakes research into genetic improvement, as well as the farming systems and resource management systems in the Middle belt Zone comprising of 7 states: Benue, Kogi, Kwara, Nassarawa, Niger, Plateau, Taraba and the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja. Moreover, research is conducted in ten (10) outstations located in different parts of the country: Ibadan, (Oyo State), Amakama-olokoro (Abia State), Uyo Ubo-ukuku (Akwa-Ibom State), Warri (Delta State), Bacita (Kwara State), Mokwa (Niger State), Birnin – Kebbi (Kebbi State), Numan (Adamawa State), Yandev (Benue State) and Riyom (Plateau State). On-farm adaptive trials are conducted in multi-locations, particularly in the central zone.

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The Institute for Agricultural Research, Samaru, Zaria, is charged with the responsibilities of researching into:
(a) Genetic improvement of sorghum, groundnut, cowpea, cotton and sunflower.
(b) The total farming system and problems of all agricultural food crops produced in the Savanna ecological zone covering Bauchi, Gombe, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Sokoto and Zamfara States. It is also to look into problems of:
(i) Crop agronomy including cultivation, planting and harvesting methods.
(ii) Adaptation of introduced or improved crop varieties;
(iii) Development and testing of pest and disease control measures;
(iv) Farming systems including integration of livestock, tree crops and agroforestry into production systems;
(v) Socio-economic problems of agricultural production;

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The Institute shall conduct research into:
(a) General and reproductive improvement of:
(i) livestock: cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, rabbits etc.
(ii) pastures and other plants for animal feeding;
(b) All aspect of animal nutrition;
(c) Dairy and dairy products;
(d) Improvement of livestock production and management practices;
(e) Socio-economic problems of animal production, and in particular of the production of meat, milk, and other dairy products;
(f) Improvements and management practices of natural range for livestock grazing, and of sown pastures;
(g) Farming systems including livestock diagnostic surveys and integration of crops and agro-forestry into livestock production systems;
(h) Design and fabrication of labour-saving devices for live-stock production;
(i) Improvement of reproductive efficiency of livestock including artificial
insemination (A.I.) and control of reproductive problems; and
(j) Any other problems related to animal production, feed and nutrition.
(k) Standardization and quality control of manufactured animal feeds;
(l) Extension research liaison with relevant Federal and State Ministries, primary producers, industries and other users of research results, on matters of animal production and utilization in collaboration with NAERLS;
(m) technical and vocational training in areas relevant to all the above;
(n) laboratory and other technical services to livestock farmers, industries and others needing these services; and
(o) In carrying out its mandate, collaborate with all other relevant Research Institutes and Organisations.
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