Aliyu Madugu Shuaibu
Title: Non-thermophilic Campylobacter spp: How good are the Isolation Methods for detection of Campylobacter?
Aliyu Madugu Shuaibu, currently obtained a Master’s degree in Biotechnology
Abstract: Non thermophilic Campylobacter species particularly C. concisus has been associated with Crohn’s disease, diarrhoea and other enteric inflammations in human. Human oral cavity has been the known source for this organism. Studies have identified pet dogs as rick factors for human infection it was also reportedly isolated from diarrhoeic and healthy dogs. In laboratory, isolating C. concisus using the routine stool culture method has proven difficult. However, filtration method was proposed to be an ideal isolation method for these organisms. In this study, Sartorius acetate membrane filters of two different pore sizes (0.45µm and 0.65µm) were used to evaluate C. concisus strains 12808, ATCC 2010-1718 and ATCC 33237 and to isolate C. concisus from faecal samples of dogs. Twenty (20) dogs’ faecal samples were collected for the isolation and identification of C. concisus. The 0.45µm and 0.65µm membrane filters were separately placed on a of surface different blood agar plates to filter samples. The plates were incubated in a microaerophilic, hydrogen enhanced condition at 37oC for 5 days. Growth of bacteria colonies were recorded using both 0.45µm and 0.65µm for the above mentioned C. concisus strains indicating the passage of the organisms through the filters. Only faecal samples filtered through 0.65µm yielded colonies indicating that no organism passed through 0.45µm pore size from direct faecal solution. Oxidase and Catalase test were carried out on 15 of the isolates with having oxidase 10 positive, 5 negative while catalase had 11positive and 4 negative. Real time PCR with Campylobacter concisus specific primer confirmed negative result for C. concisus.
Chukwumalume Rufina. Chinelo.
Title: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS) and Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) in Selected Fish Species from the Coast of South Africa
Chukwumalume Rufina. Chinelo. currently obtained her Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in food Science
Durogbitan Isaiah Olugbade
Title: Assessing Changes in The Microbial Communities that Colonise the Invertebrate Gut in Polluted and Non-Polluted Waters
Metagenomic Analysis of Shrimp (Crangon Crangon)
Abstract: The gut of vertebrates and invertebrates has been identified as one of the major organs that interact with the environment, and it is involved in adaptations and stress responses. Next generation sequencing provides a unique opportunity to explore gut microbial communities and their interaction with the environment and hosts. Most of the research on gut microbiota has been focused on humans and land animals, while little studies have been conducted on gut microbiomes of aquatic animals and their changes in response to changing environmental conditions. Treatment of some human diseases such as; diabetes, obesity, mental healths, cancer, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease to mention a few, and protection against infection have been achieved by restoring a healthy gut microbiota. The aim of this project is assessing changes in the microbial diversity associated with invertebrates in polluted waters. 60 samples of brown shrimp (Crangon crangon) are collected from different highly- polluted (Widnes and Mersey, England) and less-polluted (Dale, Wales and Faro, Portugal) waters, preserved in three different ways (ethanol-frozen, fresh-frozen, and fresh shrimp stored in a tank). The sizes and sexes of the shrimp were determined, before the shrimp were dissected using sterilized tools. Working to ensuring there is no contamination from external sources. Effective lysis mechanisms were employed, which include bead beating using a TissueLyser machine, and homogenizing reagents, with conditions essential for complete release of bacterial Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) from shrimp tissue cut at the posterior or anterior part. Genomic DNA of high purity and quantity was regarded, good enough to conduct phylogenetic survey for assessing microbial diversity associated with shrimp’s gut. This was achieved using Qiagen DNeasy Blood and Tissue extraction kits. A PCR amplified band size of 360 base pair of 16S rRNA gene equivalent to the used primer sets of 530R/790F was obtained and found suitable. The metagenomic DNA extracted will be sent for next generation (NGS) sequencing at the University of Northumbia, Newcastle using Illumina MiSeq Platform. The MiSeq sequence data will be analyzed to have a clear perspective of the microbial diversity associated with the shrimp’s gut from the diverse environment. The result was not ready before the expiration time for submission of this research. However, it is recommended that the sequencing result should be used for assessing the changes in the diverse microbial communities in future research. This can provide better understanding of not only the ecology of this shrimp but markers valuable for assessing pollution levels and clues for protection against infection and restoring health to the host in stress and diseases conditions.
Ebojei Charles Omoruyi.
Title: Economic Analysis of Cabbage Production in Plateau State, Nigeria.
Ebojei Charles Omoruyi. currently obtained his Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D) in Agricultural Economics.
Abstract: This study was carried out with the main aim of evaluating economic efficiency and profitability of cabbage production among farmers in Plateau State. A total of 230 cabbage farmers were randomly selected from three Local Government Areas (Jos North, Jos South and Riyom) in the State for the survey using a well-structured questionnaire. The three Local Government Areas were purposively chosen for the survey because the weather in the area was conducive for the production of cabbage in the State. A random selection of two villages from each of the selected Local Government Areas was done. The villages selected were: Naraguta and Yelwa from Jos North, Zawan and Kuru from Jos South; and Riyom and Ta hoss from Riyom. A sample size of 10% was chosen from a sample frame of 2330 cabbage farmers. Descriptive statistics, gross margin analysis model and the stochastic production frontier model were used to analyse the data collected from the farmers. Results show that technical efficiency of the farmers was concentrated at the efficiency class of 81 – 100 where 56% of the farmers fall into this category. The mean technical efficiency was 70%, and the most technically inefficient farmer shows cost saving of 30.07%. The predicted allocative efficiencies differ substantially among the farmers ranging from 0.17 – 0.91 with the mean allocative efficiency of 56%. The most allocative inefficient farmer had cost saving of 81.32%. The average economic efficiency of the farmers was 42%. The variable cost for cabbage production in the study area was N56,100 per hectare. Among the variable costs, fertilizer recorded the highest cost of N13,500 representing 24% of the total cost of production, followed by planting materials with a cost of N12,500 representing 22% of the cost of production. From the results, the gross farm income realized by a farmer was N175,000 per hectare. The gross margin per hectare was N118,900. This shows that cabbage production in the study area is profitable to the tune of N118,900 per hectare. The return to naira invested was 2.12, signifying a profit of N2.12K to every N1 invested. The three most important constraints farmers faced in cabbage production were: inadequate fertilizers, inadequate credit facilities and insecurity. The study recommended the training of farmers by donor agencies in the country on the use of organic fertilizers as a substitute to inorganic fertilizers; to be facilitated by the State’s Agricultural Development Authorities.
Title: Assessment of Developed Products from Small Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)
Mrs. Fafowora Bolanle, currently obtained a mastered degree in Fisheries and Aquaculture.