Malomo, Gabriel Adebayo
Title: Effects of Protein Manipulation, Enzymes Supplementation, and Faecal Treatment on Nitrogen Emissions in Chicken Production.
Malomo, Gabriel Adebayo, currently obtained his Doctor of Philosophy (Ph.D.) in Animal Sciences
Abstract: Poultry production is a major contributor to environmental pollution (8% of emissions from livestock), particularly, the release of greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O) and ammonia (NH3). Adequate nutrition and waste management are veritable tools to alleviate these environmental problems. The general objective of this study was to reduce nitrogen emissions in chicken production. The specific objectives of the study were to determine (i) the effects of low Crude Protein (CP) diets on the performance and N-economy of broiler chicken and laying hens; (ii) the effects of supplementing diets of broiler chicken and laying hens with methionine and lysine on performance and N-economy of the birds; (iii) the effects of enzymes supplementation on performance and N-economy of broiler chicken and laying hens; and (iv) the effects of different types of alum on nitrogen loss from treated chicken manure during storage. Six experiments were conducted. In experiment 1, 168 broilers chicks were fed 16%, 18%, 20% and 22% CP diets with National Research Council (NRC) recommended methionine and lysine levels. In experiment 2, 168 broilers chicks were allotted to 20 and 22% CP diets with methionine + lysine content balance and, 20% and 22% CP diets with 110% NRC recommendation for methionine and lysine. In experiment 3, 210 broiler chicks were allotted to five 20% CP diets with or without enzyme (Rovabio and Roxazyme G) at 0.1g/kg and 0.2g/kg. In experiment 4, 180 laying hens were allotted to 11.5%, 13.5%, 15.5% and 17.5% CP diets with NRC requirements for methionine and lysine. In experiment 5, 210 laying hens were allotted to five 13.5% CP diets with or without enzyme (Rovabio and Roxazyme G) at 0.1g/kg and 0.2g/kg. In experiment 6, fresh feacal samples were collected from layers fed varying dietary protein levels over a 72 hour period. The feacal samples were treated with or without ammonium alum, aluminum sulphate, potassium alum, ferric alum, ammoblast® applied at 2.5%, 5.0%, 7.5% and 10.0% of feacal weight, respectively. Data collected from experiment 1 – 5 were subjected to ANOVA using Completely Randomized Design while experiment 6 used Randomized Complete Block Design. The means were separated using Duncan’s multiple range test. The findings of the study revealed that: (i) low CP diets reduced (p<0.05) N-excretion, nitrogen output intensity, anthropogenic propensity, cost per unit output, weight gain and egg weight of chicken; (ii) low CP diets supplemented with methionine, lysine and enzymes improved weight gain in broilers but did not affect egg weight in laying hens; and (iii) N-loss in stored chicken manure was reduced (p<0.05) by addition of aluminum sulphate, potassium alum, ferric alum and Ammoblast. The study concluded that N-loss in chicken production can be controlled by feeding enzyme supplemented low CP (20%) diet with 10% methionine and lysine above the standard recommendations of NRC. Laying hens could be fed enzyme supplemented 13.5% CP diet with balance of methionine and lysine. Stored chicken manure treated with ammoblast at 2.5 – 10% effectively reduced N-emissions. The implication of these findings is that feeding low dietary CP supplemented with methionine, lysine and enzymes is an effective approach to reduce nitrogen emissions from chicken production.
Title: Impact of Floods on Agricultural Practices on Downstream Communities of Kainji Dam, Niger State, Nigeria
Musa, Musa, currently obtained a master’s degree in Environmental Management
Abstract: Discharge from Kanji Hydro Electric Power Dam entail large water outflow which cause flooding to adjoining lands downstream of the dam. Rural settlements on the downstream of the dam are predominantly agrarian communities, who depend on the land and water resources for their socio-economic livelihood. In recent times Flood events in these communities not only threaten basic infrastructure but also have destroyed farmlands and economic trees. The aim of the study was to assess the impact the flood from Kanji Dam on agricultural practices of downstream communities. The method of data gathering involved reconnaissance survey, personal interview with selected farmers and the use of questionnaire. Also data was gathered from Landsat Imageries of 1998 and 2013 from Google Earth. Simple descriptive statistics was used to analyse the quantitative data, while Maximum likelihood classification and Area calculation in Hectares was used for the terrain analysis. The Satellite Imageries of (1998 and 2013) were classified to determine the variations in Land use land cove characteristics of the Study Area. Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of the Study Area extracted from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data of 30m resolution was used for this study, buffering analysis were carried out at 30m, 50m and 70m respectively, flood vulnerability map of the study area was produced to classify the area into low, medium, high and save zones. The results of the analysis show that most of the farmers are vulnerable to flooding due to their limited adaptive capacity. The findings also indicate that the farmers still practice the traditional methods of farming with little or no effort for adopting modern methods that is suitable for flood plain Settlements. DEM of the study area shows elevation of the communities ranging from highest 298m to lowest 81m above mean sea level. Classified Satellite Imageries of 1998 and 2013 of the Study Area shows a marginal decrease in farming activities form 65.47% in 1998 to as low as 48.88% in 2013. Buffering analysis at 30m, 50m and 70m indicates that farmlands and vegetation are mostly affected by flood. The flood vulnerability map of the study area shows the settlement vulnerability to flooding at varying degrees. The study has demonstrated that Remote Sensing and Geographic Information System can serve as a veritable tool for providing information necessary for mapping Communities vulnerable to the impact of flood and recommendation on the need for all stakeholder’s involvement, including Village or District heads in the dissemination of flood warning information to encourage public participation in early warning and early action.